Taj Mahal Architecture: Origins in Humayun’s Tomb (Video)

Humayun’s Tomb was built by the Islamic Mughal dynasty in Delhi from 1562-71, 85 years before the Taj Mahal. By comparing the two structures, you will see how the Mughals refined and perfected their original design to create their masterpiece: the Taj Mahal. Approach Guides’ founder David Raezer explores the how the design similarities between the first tomb built by the Mughal dynasty in India, Humayun’s Tomb, and their masterpiece, the Taj Mahal. It is produced as part of our Insights Series in conjunction our guidebook on the subject “Highlights of India: Delhi & Agra.”

Taj Mahal Architecture: Origins in Humayun’s Tomb

Comparison: Humayun's Tomb and the Taj Mahal

Comparison: Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal

Facade Comparison

Similarities in the architecture of Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal

Let’s begin by looking at the similarities between the architecture of Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal. Both have large, rectangular pistaq entrances the tops of which break above the rest of the facade. They frame pointed-arch iwan niches. You can see this pistaq-iwan niche combination repeated on both facades. There’s a clear prototype for this arrangement in the earlier Timurid Madrasa of Ulegh Beg, which was built between 1417-1420 in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.

Timurid Madrasa of Ulegh Beg. Samarkand, Uzbekistan

Timurid Madrasa of Ulegh Beg. Samarkand, Uzbekistan

Additionally, both Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal have large bulbous domes that rise above the tomb at the center, they feature Hindu-inspired chhatri pavilions, and they have chamfered corners that give the impression of depth. Finally, they sit on elevated platforms, symbolic of their importance.

Differences between the architecture of Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal

This is where things get interesting! The Taj has Quranic inscriptions that communicate a clear narrative to the visitor. In the video, we zoom in so we can see them more clearly. They convey an apocalyptic message focused on judgement and the potential for salvation. Another difference is the color scheme. In Humayun’s Tomb, white marble is used exclusively to highlight key features, while at the Taj, entire tomb is white. The facade of Humayun’s Tomb undulates, with octagonal wings that flank the entrance projecting forward. These projections are eliminated at the Taj. Finally, the dome changes form. You can see how the Taj’s dome is more elevated and significantly more bulbous.

Layout Comparison

Both tombs employ what is called a nine-fold plan, in which eight rooms surround a central chamber. The tomb sits at the absolute center. In both the rooms are octagonal. The octagon represents a middle state between a circle (symbolic of the divine world) and square (symbolic of a human world) and is used to designate sacred areas. As for differences, Humayun’s tomb encourages visitors to move outward from the center, while the Taj encourages a rotation around the central tomb.

Comparing the flow of movement: Humayun's Tomb and the Taj Mahal

Comparing the flow of movement: Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal

And finally, to illustrate the most important point, we have overlaid the floor plans on the elevations. You can see that the Taj is significantly more balanced. It is a perfect cube with a 1:1 ratio between plan and elevation.

Comparison of the floorplans and elevation of Humayun's Tomb and the Taj Mahal

Comparison of the floorplans and elevation of Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal

A Guide to Eating Thali in India

Indian Thali (Vegetarian)

Vegetarian Thali. Image by GracinhaMarco Abundo.

Thalis are one of the most delicious and inexpensive dishes that you will encounter throughout your travels in India; however, they can be intimidating if you don’t know how to eat them. Our friend, Surya, generously gave us a few lessons in how to approach eating thalis – we hope that this guide helps you as much as it did us. Enjoy!

What is a Thali

The thali is typically served on a round plate (or more traditionally, a banana leaf), with small bowls (including vegetables, curries and curd) lining the periphery; in the center of the plate is places a heap of plain rice, which is replenished as you move through the meal.

Although thalis can now be found in the north and south of India, the thali (Hindi for “the plate”) has its origins in South India, given its orientation around rice (as compared to the north’s orientation around wheat).

Fingers, please… A thali is traditionally eaten with your fingers, and only with the finger of the right hand, specifically. Use your left hand only for pouring the curries onto your rice and to grasp your drinking glass.

Rice is central to the dish. The rice sits in the center of the plate; you divide off a portion of the rice and place the different curries or vegetables on top of that portion (rather than pouring the sauce over the top of the whole pile of rice on your plate). Mix the sauces in with the rice with your fingers to get a good spread throughout the rice.

How to Eat Thali

There is an order to the progression of thali eating:

  • Begin by eating any of the vegetables (in both curries and dry form) on the plate. You can also eat the vegetables throughout as an accompaniment to the rice and sauce courses to follow.
  • The fiery lentil-based vegetable sauce called “sambhar” is next to be eaten (it is added to a portion of rice as you desire).
  • The chili- and tamarind-based “vathal kozhambu”, the spiciest of the three sauces, is eaten next with rice. Note that this sauce is not always given.
  • The “rasam”, mixed with rice, is always eaten last of the sauces. It imparts a tomatoey and peppery palate.
  • Curd (yoghurt) mixed with rice is always eaten last, to cool your palate and aid with digestion. The roasted dry chili can be added for balance.
  • There is sometimes a sweet for dessert added as well.

Then again, you could just wing it! Just pretend like you know what you are doing and all will be well….Enjoy!

Going to India? Explore India’s art and architecture with our downloadable travel guides to India

Best Parks to See Tigers in India


When in India, seeing a tiger in the wild should be a priority on any traveler’s itinerary. And India’s centrally-located Madhya Pradesh province holds two of the best places to see them. After viewing the stunning Islamic architecture of Delhi and Agra or visiting the amazing Buddhist and Hindu caves of Ellora, Ajanta, and Elephanta, take a quick flight to Kanha National Park or Bandhavgarh National Park (outside of Khajuraho).

Why Kanha or Bandhavgarh?

There are only two wildlife parks in India that offer you the opportunity to ride into inaccessible (by car) areas of the park on mahout-driven elephants to view tigers up-close during the day (this is called a “tiger show”): Bandhavgarh and Kanha. In addition, both parks have a large tiger population, making them the two premier spots in India for sightings.

Information on Bengal Tigers

  • The tiger is the largest of all thirty-seven species of wild cats. Along with the lion, the leopard, the snow leopard and the jaguar, the tiger is classified in the genus “Panthera”, which comprises the group of big cats that are capable of roaring, due to a modification of the hyboid bone.
  • India is home to over half the world’s tiger population (this estimate was given to us by researchers at Kanha). As of March 2011, the current tiger population is estimated at 1,571-1,875 (the subspecies specifically being the “Bengal Tiger”), with the greatest concentration thereafter being in Southeast Asia (there are no tigers in Africa).
  • Tigers are the only big cats with stripes. The stripe patterns on each tiger, designed for camouflage, differ on each side of its body.
  • Males weigh 400-500 lbs and females 220-350 lbs.
  • Tigers are successful in 1 out of every 10-20 attempts to stalk and kill prey. Tigers kill their prey with either a bite on the back of the neck that serves to sever the spinal column or a bite on the throat that serves to suffocate its prey. An adult tigress needs to kill a fair-sized prey (200 lbs) 40-50 times per year, or every 7-8 days.
  • Tigers possess two sensory enhancements, neither of which is unique to this species: the tepetum lucidum, a reflective patch in the retina which improves vision in low light conditions; and the vemeronasal organ (VNO), sometimes called Jacobseon’s organ, which is located in the roof of the mouth. The use of the VNO is most obvious in the grimace known as flehmen, in which the animal wrinkles its nose and extends its tongue; the VNO is designed to evaluate the sexual receptivity of females.
  • Tigers have evolved as basically solitary animals (as compared to lions that exists largely in group formations). Both males and females are territorial and have specifically staked out areas in which each animal pursues prey.
  • Females nurse cubs for 20-24 months; gestation period of 105 days; average litter of 2-3 cubs, with high mortality rate (34% in first year, 17% in second), the most common reason for death being infanticide, the killing of the cubs by a new male looking to mate with the mother tiger.
  • Poaching is still a real problem, particularly because elements of the tiger are still in demand for traditional Chinese medicine.

Hotel. Kipling Camp. 07649/277218. www.kiplingcamp.com. Although it is far from luxury and a bit expensive, this is the quintessential (and first) camp in the area, to the best of our knowledge. It is located right outside of the entrance to Kanha. The camp appears to suffer a little from a staff turnover issue, however, it is more than adequate. You are here to see tigers and they maximize your experience on this front, running a morning and afternoon game drive led by experienced naturalists.


Wooden Chariot Builders in Puri, India (Video)

Enormous wooden structures resembling a Hindu temple on wheels are designed to carry images of a deity through the streets during major festivals. In the weeks leading up to the festival, a team of professional chariot builders are brought in to build these chariots from scratch. In this episode of Approach Guides’ On Location series, we take you behind the scenes to watch the fascinating process of chariot builders constructing a Hindu wooden chariot in Puri, India (Orissa).