Just as with the Palatine Chapel’s dome Pantocrator, Christ suggests his gentler, more forgiving nature with his controlled arm raise and closed book (see Fig. 2). This compares versus an emphasis on his role as supreme god and apocalyptic judge in apse depictions.
Although the original central apse has been destroyed, it likely held an image of the Virgin Mary, consistent with earlier Byzantine prototypes. This is supported by the fact that the Martorana was dedicated to her and the side apses hold images of her parents (Joachim and Anne). Although mosaicists deviated from this traditional model in other churches, they likely adhered to it in the Martorana (and likely the original Palatine Chapel) given its pure central plan layout, wherein the dome over the crossing was still the position of greatest importance.