Humayun’s Tomb was built by the Islamic Mughal dynasty in Delhi from 1562-71, 85 years before the Taj Mahal. By comparing the two structures, you will see how the Mughals refined and perfected their original design to create their masterpiece: the Taj Mahal. Approach Guides’ founder David Raezer explores the how the design similarities between the first tomb built by the Mughal dynasty in India, Humayun’s Tomb, and their masterpiece, the Taj Mahal. It is produced as part of our Insights Series in conjunction our guidebook on the subject “Highlights of India: Delhi & Agra.”
Taj Mahal Architecture: Origins in Humayun’s Tomb
Similarities in the architecture of Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal
Let’s begin by looking at the similarities between the architecture of Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal. Both have large, rectangular pistaq entrances the tops of which break above the rest of the facade. They frame pointed-arch iwan niches. You can see this pistaq-iwan niche combination repeated on both facades. There’s a clear prototype for this arrangement in the earlier Timurid Madrasa of Ulegh Beg, which was built between 1417-1420 in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
Additionally, both Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal have large bulbous domes that rise above the tomb at the center, they feature Hindu-inspired chhatri pavilions, and they have chamfered corners that give the impression of depth. Finally, they sit on elevated platforms, symbolic of their importance.
Differences between the architecture of Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal
This is where things get interesting! The Taj has Quranic inscriptions that communicate a clear narrative to the visitor. In the video, we zoom in so we can see them more clearly. They convey an apocalyptic message focused on judgement and the potential for salvation. Another difference is the color scheme. In Humayun’s Tomb, white marble is used exclusively to highlight key features, while at the Taj, entire tomb is white. The facade of Humayun’s Tomb undulates, with octagonal wings that flank the entrance projecting forward. These projections are eliminated at the Taj. Finally, the dome changes form. You can see how the Taj’s dome is more elevated and significantly more bulbous.
Both tombs employ what is called a nine-fold plan, in which eight rooms surround a central chamber. The tomb sits at the absolute center. In both the rooms are octagonal. The octagon represents a middle state between a circle (symbolic of the divine world) and square (symbolic of a human world) and is used to designate sacred areas. As for differences, Humayun’s tomb encourages visitors to move outward from the center, while the Taj encourages a rotation around the central tomb.
And finally, to illustrate the most important point, we have overlaid the floor plans on the elevations. You can see that the Taj is significantly more balanced. It is a perfect cube with a 1:1 ratio between plan and elevation.
The use of prayer beads, or japa malas, in both Buddhism and Hinduism speaks to a historical connection between the two faiths; however, Buddhist japa malas typically contain a lesser number of beads than the Hindu japa malas’ 108 — it is usually a divisor of 108. There many potential explanations for the significance of the number 108, however, none alone appears offers a definitive explanation.
The beads are typically made from the seeds or wood of the Bodhi tree (a.k.a. “ficus religosa” or fig tree; this is the tree under which the Buddha gained enlightenment) and are typically used as counters, thereby enabling the faithful to keep track of recitations of mantras or prayers, prostrations, circumambulations and so forth.
The large bead on the strand is symbolic of the wisdom that allows one to recognize emptiness (sunyata) and the bell-shaped bead surmounting it is symbolic of “emptiness” itself (the bell is always a Buddhist symbol for emptiness; its ringing is the sound of emptiness).
A few words on Buddhist philosophy: “Emptiness” signifies that everything one encounters in life is empty of absolute identity, permanence, or an in-dwelling ‘self’ (anatta). All things are connected and mutually dependent, in a constant state of flux, transforming and becoming (rather than self-centered and fixed). The Buddhists believe that only when this abandonment of “self” occurs can the transcendent state of enlightenment be achieved.
How to Use Buddhist Prayer Beads
A mantra is said as each bead is spun (in turn) in a counterclockwise direction (similar to circumambulation of the stupa).
The rotation through the beads is also typically done in a counterclockwise motion beginning at the first bead after the large central bead. This large bead is used a counter, signaling that one full rotation of the beads (108 mantras) has be achieved. This process is of 108-bead cycles is repeated countless times.
“Older than history, older than tradition, older even than legend, and looks twice as old as all of them put together.” -Mark Twain, giving his (not entirely inaccurate) description of Varanasi
I felt brilliantly alive from the first moment we arrived in Varanasi. Its sights, sounds, colors, and yes, death, brought me immediately into the present, absorbing me in its endlessly fascinating spectacle of ritual activity. Over the next few days we would come to know the city in a very intimate way, learning what we could about its history and ritual. Here is some of what we learned.
Brief History of Varanasi
The city name, “Varanasi” (also known as Benares, likely a corruption of the name Varanasi), is derived from the two tributaries of the Ganges River — Varuna and Asi — between which it is situated. Historically, the city has been known to the Hindus as Kasha, which means “brightness”, which gives the city its title as the “city of light”. According to Hindu tradition, Varanasi is the oldest city in the world, the eternal city of Shiva. However, to put this in historical perspective, the city was likely settled by the Aryans, as they progressed eastward across the Gangetic plain in the earlier part of the 1st millenium BCE (1000-750 BCE). Although certainly still pretty old, this would make it far younger than the oldest Indian subcontinent civilization, the Harappan civilization (2300-1000 BCE) along the Indus River Valley, which existed simultaneously with the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (2900-1800 BCE) and the Old Kingdom Egyptians (2650-2134 BCE).
Visiting Varanasi: Sunrise on the Ganges River
Hindus have a cyclical view of life and death (death feeds life, and in turn, life feeds death, around and around again); in Varanasi in particular, this cycle is strikingly tangible and omnipresent: birth and death dominate the rituals of daily life. The belief is reinforced by the city’s physical layout: Varanasi is entirely positioned on the west side of the Ganges, the side of the setting sun and therefore symbolic of the city’s association with death as the Hindu cremation center; at the same time, the city faces east, the side of the rising sun, symbolic of rebirth and new life. The east-facing direction of city creates incredible morning light; a sunrise boat ride is a highlight of any visit. Since the city is entirely positioned on the west bank, sunrise boat rides afford the early riser unparalleled, magical, orange-hued views of ritual bathers performing puja (worship) of the rising sun and doing laundry.
The “Burning” or Cremation Ghats in Varanasi
The stone steps (ghats) lining the Ganges — descending from the city, down the riverbank, and into to the river — emphasize the city’s focus on the sacred river. There are over 100 individual ghats in total lining the river’s edge; these steps make access to the river possible during wet (when the river runs high and only a few steps are visible) and dry (when the river runs low and many steps are visible) seasons. As Hinduism’s most sacred city, Hindus arrange (to the extent possible) to die and be cremated in city, whereupon their ashes are left to be carried away by the sacred Ganges river. The cremation fires at these ghats burn 24-hours a day, 7 days a week. Firewood used for cremation: mango tree for common people and sandalwood for rich; apparently, double the weight of the body is required in firewood in order fuel the fire for the three hours it takes to cremate a body. The premier cremation ghat in the city is Manikarnika Ghat, and lies about a 5-10 minutes walk north of the main ghat. No photographs are permitted, for obvious reasons.
Ceremonies at Dashaswamedh Ghat
Ganges ceremonies at sunset are held at the main (Dashaswamedh) ghat. Every day, as the sun sets, multiple Ganges ceremonies begin on the steps of the main ghat. The ceremony consists of bell-ringing (to ward off evil spirits) and offering a series of seven, elaborate gifts of light to the river. The gifts of light get progressively brighter as the ceremony proceeds; it ends by floating candles on the water and pouring water into the Ganges. A definitely memorable experience…
Thalis are one of the most delicious and inexpensive dishes that you will encounter throughout your travels in India; however, they can be intimidating if you don’t know how to eat them. Our friend, Surya, generously gave us a few lessons in how to approach eating thalis – we hope that this guide helps you as much as it did us. Enjoy!
What is a Thali
The thali is typically served on a round plate (or more traditionally, a banana leaf), with small bowls (including vegetables, curries and curd) lining the periphery; in the center of the plate is places a heap of plain rice, which is replenished as you move through the meal.
Although thalis can now be found in the north and south of India, the thali (Hindi for “the plate”) has its origins in South India, given its orientation around rice (as compared to the north’s orientation around wheat).
Fingers, please… A thali is traditionally eaten with your fingers, and only with the finger of the right hand, specifically. Use your left hand only for pouring the curries onto your rice and to grasp your drinking glass.
Rice is central to the dish. The rice sits in the center of the plate; you divide off a portion of the rice and place the different curries or vegetables on top of that portion (rather than pouring the sauce over the top of the whole pile of rice on your plate). Mix the sauces in with the rice with your fingers to get a good spread throughout the rice.
How to Eat Thali
There is an order to the progression of thali eating:
- Begin by eating any of the vegetables (in both curries and dry form) on the plate. You can also eat the vegetables throughout as an accompaniment to the rice and sauce courses to follow.
- The fiery lentil-based vegetable sauce called “sambhar” is next to be eaten (it is added to a portion of rice as you desire).
- The chili- and tamarind-based “vathal kozhambu”, the spiciest of the three sauces, is eaten next with rice. Note that this sauce is not always given.
- The “rasam”, mixed with rice, is always eaten last of the sauces. It imparts a tomatoey and peppery palate.
- Curd (yoghurt) mixed with rice is always eaten last, to cool your palate and aid with digestion. The roasted dry chili can be added for balance.
- There is sometimes a sweet for dessert added as well.
Then again, you could just wing it! Just pretend like you know what you are doing and all will be well….Enjoy!
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The meaning of the AUM (OM) symbol
The AUM symbol (also spelled “Om”) consists of three curves, one semicircle, and a dot; these are symbols of each person’s self and his potential:
- The large curve (the lower left corner of the image) symbolizes the waking state. Perhaps it is best to think of this curve as symbolic of the ego, our outward persona, the person we think we should be, that identity that we consciously associate with the self.
- Moving clockwise, the upper curve (upper left corner) symbolizes the unconscious state, that part of the self that is hidden to one’s consciousness, but is equally part of the self.
- The middle curve, which extends from the center to the right side, symbolizes the dream state. This dream state, positioned vertically between the conscious and unconscious elements of the self, serves as a means to connect the two, a means for the conscious and unconscious to interact. This is certainly what we do when we dream: the unconscious becomes conscious, affording a more complete view of the self.
- The semicircle or crescent (upper right corner) symbolizes illusion, specifically in this case, the illusion that the self exists as a separate entity at all. Notice that the crescent separates the dot from the other three curves. It is this illusion that separates the individual from becoming one with his infinite self, beyond boundaries.
- The dot signifies the infinite, absolute self, hidden from the individual by illusion; this is what the Eastern faiths of Hinduism and Buddhism consider God. Dispelling the illusion and becoming one with this infinite self is the ultimate experience of life and the experience of the divine.
Joseph Campbell’s interpretation
One of our favorite descriptions of AUM, which touches on many of the symbols described above, can be found in Joseph Campbell’s book “The Hero with a Thousand Faces“. Campbell breaks down each of AUM’s three phonemes, a, u and m:
- The A representing the realm of waking experience: “cognitive of the hard gross facts of an outer universe, illuminated by the sun, and common to all”.
- The U representing the realm of dream experience: “cognitive of the fluid, subtle forms of a private interior world, self-luminous and of one substance with the dreamer”.
- The M representing the realm of very deep sleep: “dreamless, profoundly beautiful” (the person unified with the unconscious and the greater self).
For Campbell, the most profound element of AUM is not the sound, however, but the silence that surrounds it: “The silence surrounding the syllable is the unknown: it is called simply ‘the fourth’. The syllable itself is God as creator-preserver-destroyer, but the silence is God Eternal, absolutely uninvolved in all the openings-and-closings of the round.”
Experience the silence!
When in India, seeing a tiger in the wild should be a priority on any traveler’s itinerary. And India’s centrally-located Madhya Pradesh province holds two of the best places to see them. After viewing the stunning Islamic architecture of Delhi and Agra or visiting the amazing Buddhist and Hindu caves of Ellora, Ajanta, and Elephanta, take a quick flight to Kanha National Park or Bandhavgarh National Park (outside of Khajuraho).
Why Kanha or Bandhavgarh?
There are only two wildlife parks in India that offer you the opportunity to ride into inaccessible (by car) areas of the park on mahout-driven elephants to view tigers up-close during the day (this is called a “tiger show”): Bandhavgarh and Kanha. In addition, both parks have a large tiger population, making them the two premier spots in India for sightings.
Information on Bengal Tigers
- The tiger is the largest of all thirty-seven species of wild cats. Along with the lion, the leopard, the snow leopard and the jaguar, the tiger is classified in the genus “Panthera”, which comprises the group of big cats that are capable of roaring, due to a modification of the hyboid bone.
- India is home to over half the world’s tiger population (this estimate was given to us by researchers at Kanha). As of March 2011, the current tiger population is estimated at 1,571-1,875 (the subspecies specifically being the “Bengal Tiger”), with the greatest concentration thereafter being in Southeast Asia (there are no tigers in Africa).
- Tigers are the only big cats with stripes. The stripe patterns on each tiger, designed for camouflage, differ on each side of its body.
- Males weigh 400-500 lbs and females 220-350 lbs.
- Tigers are successful in 1 out of every 10-20 attempts to stalk and kill prey. Tigers kill their prey with either a bite on the back of the neck that serves to sever the spinal column or a bite on the throat that serves to suffocate its prey. An adult tigress needs to kill a fair-sized prey (200 lbs) 40-50 times per year, or every 7-8 days.
- Tigers possess two sensory enhancements, neither of which is unique to this species: the tepetum lucidum, a reflective patch in the retina which improves vision in low light conditions; and the vemeronasal organ (VNO), sometimes called Jacobseon’s organ, which is located in the roof of the mouth. The use of the VNO is most obvious in the grimace known as flehmen, in which the animal wrinkles its nose and extends its tongue; the VNO is designed to evaluate the sexual receptivity of females.
- Tigers have evolved as basically solitary animals (as compared to lions that exists largely in group formations). Both males and females are territorial and have specifically staked out areas in which each animal pursues prey.
- Females nurse cubs for 20-24 months; gestation period of 105 days; average litter of 2-3 cubs, with high mortality rate (34% in first year, 17% in second), the most common reason for death being infanticide, the killing of the cubs by a new male looking to mate with the mother tiger.
- Poaching is still a real problem, particularly because elements of the tiger are still in demand for traditional Chinese medicine.
Hotel. Kipling Camp. 07649/277218. www.kiplingcamp.com. Although it is far from luxury and a bit expensive, this is the quintessential (and first) camp in the area, to the best of our knowledge. It is located right outside of the entrance to Kanha. The camp appears to suffer a little from a staff turnover issue, however, it is more than adequate. You are here to see tigers and they maximize your experience on this front, running a morning and afternoon game drive led by experienced naturalists.
Enormous wooden structures resembling a Hindu temple on wheels are designed to carry images of a deity through the streets during major festivals. In the weeks leading up to the festival, a team of professional chariot builders are brought in to build these chariots from scratch. In this episode of Approach Guides’ On Location series, we take you behind the scenes to watch the fascinating process of chariot builders constructing a Hindu wooden chariot in Puri, India (Orissa).